Corneal topography provides us with a detailed description of various .. Available at Corneal Topography is the measurement of the curvature & shape of the cornea; results are displayed via color-coded maps. • The cornea. Immediately surrounding the central hill is an annular sea where the cornea dips below the reference surface. In the far periphery, the prolate cornea again rises.

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PDF. Sections. Abstract; Introduction; Principles of Corneal Corneal topography is a non‐contact imaging technique that maps the shape and. Corneal topography is most commonly used for the following purposes . Accessed online from The morphological characterization of the cornea using corneal topographers is a widespread clinical practice that is essential for the diagnosis.

In general, the effect is related to the scanning architecture of most 3-D OCT systems [ 24 , 28 — 30 ], so that when imaging perfectly flat surfaces they appear curved. This phenomenon can be described as a combination of at least two possible effects: a the architecture of the scanning system, which is primarily affected by the spatial separation of the mirrors, and b design, position and alignment of the collimating lens in relation to the mirrors of the scanner.

Therefore such images are not well represented in a Cartesian system of coordinates x, y, z , but rather in xoct, yoct, L , where L is the optical path along the ray and xoct, yoct are the angles horizontal and vertical of the scanner mirrors, which can be explicitly associated to the coordinates origin and directional cosines of rays entering the sample.

This representation allows conversion from angular to spatial coordinates following relatively simple calibration.

OCT systems are designed to detect usually faint back-scattered light from tissue. However, both backscattered as well as back-reflected from directional and specular reflections light is detected, particularly for surfaces normal to the optical axis of the instrument, such as the corneal apex in anterior corneal imaging. The presence of back-reflected light results in saturation of the A-scan signals.

Upon Fourier Transform, fully saturated A-scans appear as completely modulated white lines, whereas partially saturated A-scans give rise to replications and ghost signals. These effects produce additional distorting factors in the detected corneal surfaces from sOCT images, and may result in an artificial steepening of the estimated cornea.

However, the consequences of these effects on the quantification of geometry of the surfaces have been generally miss-regarded. Another practical limitation for quantification of in vivo sOCT is imposed by motion artifacts [ 31 , 32 ], which are associated to breath, pulsation [ 33 ], dynamics of the tear film [ 34 ], among others, and occur, even when forehead support or bite bars are used.

Mapping Out Corneal Topography

In order to minimize the impact of motion artifacts, the common solution is to increase the acquisition speed [ 35 ]. A widespread solution in anterior segment OCT, also common to other imaging modalities such as Scheimpflug corneal topography, is the use of a meridional scanning configuration, instead of a denser rectangular scanning [ 19 , 20 , 22 , 25 ].

However, this approach assumes that the center of rotation is fixed and requires from radial interpolation, generating other sources of error. On the other hand, a dense, homogeneous sampling of the corneal elevation prevents from interpolation errors of radial or meridional sampling approaches. In summary: 1 We provide a full experimental method for correction of fan distortion, which can be universally applied to any anterior segment OCT system.

To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the correction of fan distortion in real corneas using a system comparable to those used in clinics.

Although in this work the method is applied to the reconstruction of the anterior corneal surface, the methods also provide the ray equation data, which are necessary for the application of optical distortion correction algorithms to the internal surfaces of the eye [ 25 ]. One positive of this map is that it is the best way to get a quick overview of the corneal power. Central data is more accurate than peripheral data on the axial map because the averaging algorithms in the software assume a spherical surface and the cornea becomes more aspheric in the periphery.

Depending on which area of the cornea is being evaluated, the averaging feature of the axial map could be a major limitation. For example, if central data is of greatest importance, then the map will be relatively accurate, but if a specific power map of the periphery is guiding a choice about a contact lens fit, the map may not provide the accuracy you need.

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Axial maps are ideal for base curve selection of a corneal or soft contact lens because the average of the central curvature is portrayed. For specific information about the corneal shape and power, other displays will be more helpful.

Tangential Display Map The most sensitive of the power maps are tangential display maps, and as such, they measure power and curvature at individual points on the cornea the most accurately. Often, a lens fitter must be aware of the precise changes to the corneal curvature when making clinical decisions. Some indications of corneal topography will benefit from use of the tangential map display more than others.

For example, tangential maps may be beneficial in orthokeratology ortho-k , especially when evaluating the shape of the peripheral cornea, as this display provides the most accurate peripheral data.

The display will show the power of the contact lens over the cornea, so that an examiner can accurately observe the positioning of the lens optics or to get a better clinical picture of what optics are on the surface of the eye when the patient is wearing a contact lens. The tangential display is also the most sensitive to changes in corneal curvature caused by distortion or warpage of the cornea from contact lens wear.

Elevation Display Map The go-to option for conveying the true shape of the cornea is the elevation display map. It is important to note that placido disc systems use complicated algorithms to calculate the corneal elevation, while Scheimpflug systems measure the elevation directly, so the latter system may give the most accurate data.

The systems then calculate areas of relative elevation or depression based on the deviation from the best-fit sphere, and the deviation values are displayed in microns Figure 3. In placido disc systems, only the anterior surface is measured, while Scheimpflug systems measure both the anterior and posterior elevations.

Corneal topography

Clinically, both technologies are adequate for contact-lens-related use. This elevation display map is important when first determining the best lens design to fit on an irregular cornea, specifically when deciding between a corneal or scleral gas permeable GP lens. Corneal GP lenses rest on the corneal surface, so the anterior shape of the cornea is important in predicting their success.

The elevation display map shows the shape of the anterior surface, which is important because as the irregularities of the cornea become greater, the surface is less likely to be symmetric, making it difficult to fit a mostly symmetrical lens on top of the surface.

GP lenses fit onto a cornea with these levels of elevation difference will rock on the eye, fall out of place intermittently and often cause discomfort and visual instability in wearers.

Individuals with this amount of elevation variation will likely need a scleral lens, which is less sensitive to corneal elevation differences because they vault the cornea. The elevation display map is also useful in ortho-k management. Evaluating this map at baseline will allow practitioners to determine if the corneal shape is regular enough to support an ortho-k lens.

More specifically, it will help them decide whether to use a dual-axis or single-axis lens. A patient with astigmatism will have differences in elevation between the two major meridians. In ortho-k, this is essential to ensure even distribution of the displaced cells.

This comparative display shows the corneal thickness displays of the same eye before A and after B initiating contact lens wear. The difference map C calculates the change in corneal thickness. Corneal Thickness Display Map Pachymetric capabilities are only available in Scheimpflug cameras and scanning-slit topographers, since these instruments measure posterior as well as anterior surface characteristics.

This display can be used to stage diseases i. Evaluating corneal thickness changes during contact lens wear is important for scleral lens wearers, as they may be more prone to hypoxic complications. The corneal thickness display map is helpful for these patients Figure 4. This is a great supplement to the tangential and elevation displays and can be valuable when making determinations about lens fitting.

When ortho-k lenses for myopia are worn, tissue is moved from the central cornea to the periphery. As a result, the central cornea will become thinner and the peripheral cornea thicker. The sensitive global pachymetry measurements can show if there is asymmetry in the movement of tissue centrally to peripherally. Tear Break-up Display Among the most novel options on modern topography instruments for contact lens management are tear break-up displays Figure 5.

Noninvasive tear break-up scores can be measured prior to initiating contact lens wear to gauge the quality of the natural tear film and see how it is affected by contact lens wear.

Abdfitah Ali , Optometrist OD. No Downloads.

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Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Corneal Topography 1. Raman Prasad Sah Optometrist B.

Peripheral Region mm Regions 4.

Keratometer Ophthalmometer Keratoscope: They measure the entire corneal contour. Quantitative indices Small, near central ectasia, less than 5. In advanced keratoconus. Corneal apex is displaced well below the midline resulting in varying degrees of inferior mid- peripheral steepening. Kissing pigeon pattern Contact lens fitting Choice of trial lens.The clinician usually wants to determine whether the cause of the degraded performance is due to optical or to neural factors.

In this review I will discuss a few of the items that I think are especially noteworthy. The precise location of that discontinuity will not be available to the CT, due to the sparse Placido ring sampling, and the reconstruction algorithms may not do well. It is even possible to measure a portion of the scleral topography.

Lester, M.

Corneal topography in keratoconus: state of the art

Curvature keratometric maps. Published in: Similarly, the comfort and motion of soft lenses are affected by the peripheral regions where corneal curvature changes most rapidly. Thus if the green-yellow transition is at 46 D, then the value 46 would be placed right next to the green-yellow discrete transition on the scale. It is calculated by a combination of 8 topographic indices and uses a linear discriminant function.